Yuan Lei's Little Knowledge | Classification of Mineral Materials

Release time:

2024-01-29 09:34

Mineral Materials

Materials are divided into metal materials, organic materials, inorganic non-metallic materials and composite materials. The minerals are divided into three categories: metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals and fuel minerals.

According to the definition of mineral materials, mineral materials are very similar to non-metallic minerals currently used, but it also contains metal minerals and fuel minerals, that is to say, as long as it does not destroy the original microstructure of metal minerals or fuel minerals currently used, and retains its macro technical and physical properties to be used, this metal minerals or fuel minerals also belong to mineral materials. Therefore, the category of mineral materials is larger than the current category of non-metallic minerals and cannot be treated equally. Broadly speaking, mineral materials include all kinds of minerals in nature, including metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals and fuel minerals.




01 Classification according to the structure of mineral materials

This classification method is based on the composition of mineral materials and their interrelationships. According to the structure of mineral materials, mineral materials are usually divided into two categories: single mineral materials and composite materials.

1) Single mineral material

A single mineral material is a material that is mainly composed of a single mineral, known as a single mineral material, such as flexible graphite paper, graphite filler, carbon fiber, graphite fiber, electrical mica sheet, diamond, expanded perlite, light calcium carbonate and heavy calcium carbonate.

2) Composite materials

Composite material refers to a mixed system composed of mineral materials and other materials, called composite materials. Composite materials are divided into inorganic composite materials, inorganic and organic composite materials and hybrid composite materials three categories.



02 Classification according to the composition structure and processing characteristics of mineral materials

(1) Natural mineral materials. Refers to the direct use of its physical and chemical properties of minerals or rocks, physical processing does not change the composition and structure of raw materials. Including fillers (such as heavy calcium powder, talcum powder, etc.), decoration (stone, precious stones, etc.), optics (crystal, fluorite, etc.), traditional Chinese medicine (mirabilite, gypsum, etc.), grinding materials (garnet, corundum, etc.), health nutrition (tourmaline, maifanite, etc.) and heat insulation materials (asbestos rope, cloth, etc.).

(2) Modified mineral materials.After the mineral (rock) is modified by ultra-fine, ultra-pure modification and modification, the composition or structure of the raw material is changed or partially changed, including surface modification (such as pearlescent mica, modified calcium carbonate, etc.), composition modification (such as modified bentonite, graphite fluoride, plaster of Paris, etc.) and structure modification (such as expanded perlite, expanded vermiculite, expanded graphite, rock wool, etc.).

(3) artificial mineral materials.This is to simulate the principle of natural mineral or rock generation using synthetic mineral materials. Including artificial crystals (such as artificial crystals, artificial diamonds, artificial gemstones, mineral whiskers, etc.), porous materials (such as synthetic zeolite, microporous calcium silicate), nano-mineral powder materials (such as nano-calcium carbonate, nano-zinc oxide, etc.).

(4) composite mineral materials.Composite mineral materials are artificial synthetic mineral materials with different phase compositions, including mineral-organic composite materials (such as asbestos, vermiculite, wollastonite, mica and other friction materials synthesized with polymer materials, sealing materials, insulating materials, etc.) and mineral-inorganic composite materials (such as mineral fiber reinforced inorganic cementitious materials, mineral-based skeleton building materials, thermal insulation materials, electrical functional materials, etc.).



03 Classification according to the function of mineral materials

This classification method is based on the use of mineral materials and the use of different classification. According to the properties of mineral materials, such as the use of mineral materials of electricity, magnetism, light, heat, friction, surface chemical reactions, colloidal properties and filling and sealing properties of different properties. Mineral materials are usually divided into nine categories: mechanical functional materials, thermal functional materials, electrical and magnetic functional materials, optical functional materials, adsorption functional materials, bonding and covering functional materials, fillers and enhanced functional materials, decorative functional materials and nuclear reactor functional materials. According to the use of mineral materials, mineral materials can be divided into refractory, thermal insulation, insulation, ceramics, building materials, chemicals, fillers, agricultural, medicinal, environmental protection, grinding, function and gemstones and other application types.


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